What is baijiu?
Baijiu—pronounced bye-j’yo, meaning “white spirits” in Mandarin—is a category that encompasses all traditional Chinese grain spirits. Baijiu is most commonly distilled from sorghum, but is also often made from rice, wheat, corn and millet. Production techniques differ significantly by region and style, and different styles of baijiu can be as distinct as whiskey is to tequila.
All baijiu is fermented with naturally harvested cultures of airborne yeast and microorganisms, called qu (pronounced like the English word “chew”). Most baijiu is distilled in a solid state using traditional Chinese pot stills.
Baijiu is the world’s most popular liquor by volume, with annual outputs of 12.9 billion liters (3.4B gal), according to China’s Statistics Bureau. Put another way, there is more baijiu produced each year than the combined total of vodka and whisky—numbers two and three, respectively. Baijiu and Western spirits, broadly defined, are fundamentally different alcohols. In terms of production, ingredients, flavor and aroma they bear little in common. Thus baijiu’s uniqueness makes it an exciting new category in the global spirits market.
What are the different styles of baijiu?
In all there are about a dozen distinctive regional styles of baijiu, but four styles make up the bulk of the market: strong aroma, light aroma, sauce aroma, and rice aroma.
- Light-aroma baijiu is most popular in northern China. It is made from sorghum and sometimes uses qu made from barley and peas. It is fermented in stone pots or pits, and it is best known for short and cheap production cycles with minimal aging periods. It has a light body with floral notes and the mellow sweetness of dried fruit.
- Strong-aroma baijiu is popular throughout China, but most closely associated with Sichuan Province. It uses wheat qu and continuous fermentation in earthen pits. It is distilled from sorghum, sometimes in combination with other grains. It is notable for a robust body with notes of tropical fruit, anise and pepper.
- Sauce-aroma baijiu, as in soy sauce, comes from Guizhou Province and is made from sorghum fermented in pits lined with stone bricks. Its mash is fermented and distilled eight times in the course of a year. The flavor is rich and umami, with notes of mushroom, caramel and bitter herbs.
- Rice-aroma baijiu is associated with southeastern China, particularly Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. It is distilled from rice fermented with rice-based small qu. Unique to this category is the occasional use of continuous distillation. It has a light body similar to vodka, with notes of flowers and honey.
Learn more about baijiu at DrinkBaijiu.com